Overview: inside article, you will see utilizing the SQLite overseas trick constraint to cause the dating between connected tables

Overview: inside article, you will see utilizing the SQLite overseas trick constraint to cause the dating between connected tables

Overview: within information, you will see proven tips for the SQLite unknown key limitation to implement the relations between related information.

SQLite mysterious important constraint service

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SQLite has actually recognized mysterious trick constraint since variation 3.6.19. The SQLite library also have to get created with neither SQLITE_OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY nor SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER.

To evaluate whether your current version of SQLite holds foreign trick limitations or otherwise not, you make use of listed here command.

The command return an integer advantages: 1: enable, 0: handicapped. If management revenue almost nothing, this indicates your SQLite model willnat help foreign key constraints.

If your SQLite archive is actually gathered with foreign trick constraint help, the program can make use of the PRAGMA foreign_keys order to enable or disable international secret regulations at runtime.

Summary of the SQLite unknown trick regulations

Letas start off with two dining tables: vendors and supplier_groups :

Making the assumption that each company is associated to lone one provider people. And every one provider party own zero or most suppliers. The connection between supplier_groups and vendors dining tables was one-to-many. Put differently, per each line in suppliers desk, you will find a corresponding line inside supplier_groups dining table.

These days, it’s impossible to avoid you from putting a row for the dealers stand without a corresponding row within the supplier_groups dining table.

As well as, you may possibly eliminate a row inside the supplier_groups desk without deleting or updating the related lines into the dealers dining table. This can put orphaned rows through the retailers dinner table.

To impose the relationship between lines when you look at the retailers and supplier_groups desk, you may use the mysterious trick limitations.

To increase the international principal constraint to the dealers counter, a person change the meaning of the CREATE TABLE record above as follows:

The supplier_groups table is named a father or mother desk, the dinner table that an overseas trick mention. The distributors dinner table is referred to as a child dining table, the dining table to which the overseas important restriction relates.

The club_id column in supplier_groups dining table is referred to as the folk principal, and is a column or some articles through the mother dining table that unknown secret constraint recommendations. Usually, the parent trick is the major important on the adult dining table.

The students_id line through the dealers desk is named the kid secret. Commonly, the child key sources around the main trick of this moms and dad table.

SQLite overseas key constraint example

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Principal, add three lines to the supplier_groups dinner table.

Secondly, put a brand new vendor inside providers counter aided by the vendor collection that is present during the supplier_groups dining table.

This declaration is effective properly good.

Third, make an attempt to add an innovative new provider inside manufacturers stand aided by the distributor class that does not exist in the supplier_groups desk.

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SQLite inspected the mysterious trick limitation, turned down the modification, and distributed the next blunder message:

SQLite foreign important restriction actions

What can come about if you should remove a row in supplier_groups desk? Should all the matching lines during the suppliers counter will also be removed? The exact same points to the enhance functioning.

To specify just how foreign principal constraint behaves anytime the moms and dad important is definitely removed or upgraded, you make use of the at ELIMINATE or ON ENHANCE activity as follows:

In practice, the ideals of the biggest key in the parent stand will not changes which means the update principles tend to be less essential. Slightly more important rule would be the REMOVE regulation that points out the action once the folk important is definitely erased.

Weall look at each activity from the next example


Once the mom secret modifications, get rid of or modify, the matching baby tactics of all the rows inside the baby stand set-to NULL.

First of all, drop and produce the dining table vendors with the ready NOTHING motions for all the cluster_id mysterious principal:

Second, insert some rows into the companies table:

One-third, erase the vendor cluster id 3 from your supplier_groups desk:

Next, query information within the dealers desk.

The principles for the cluster_id line from the corresponding lines into the dealers dining table set-to NOTHING.


The fix TRADITIONAL motions determines value of the foreign secret to the nonpayment advantages chosen from inside the line classification if you produce the table.

Because the worth in the line cluster_id loan defaults to NULL, so long as you remove a row from your supplier_groups dinner table, the beliefs of people_id will set-to NOTHING.

After setting the standard benefits, the international secret constraint kicks in and brings the examine.


The CONTROL motion does not lets you adjust or erase worth through the moms and dad secret from the adult desk.

Initially, decrease and create the providers table making use of RESTRICT motions for the mysterious trick crowd_id :

Second, place a-row into dinner table sellers using crowd_id 1.

One-third, remove the vendor class with id 1 within the supplier_groups counter:

SQLite given here oversight:

To solve they, you must initially get rid of all lines from vendors desk that has group_id 1:

Then, you can actually eliminate the vendor group 1 from your supplier_groups desk:


The NO MOTION doesn’t imply by-pass the international principal constraint. There are the same impact while the LIMIT .


The WATERFALL activity propagates the modifications from the parent table toward the youngster desk in case you revise or remove the mother or father principal.

Initial, insert the seller associations inside supplier_groups dinner table:

Second, decline and produce the dining table retailers with the CASCADE motions inside foreign principal class_id :

Last, put some distributors into stand manufacturers :

Last, up-date team_id of the Domestic trader people to 100:

Fifth, problem data from dining table companies :

As you can see the worthiness inside the cluster_id column for the XYZ Corp through the dining table providers changed from 1 to 100 when we finally updated the group_id within the suplier_groups table. This is actually the response to ON UP-DATE CASCADE actions.

Sixth, delete distributor crowd id 2 through the supplier_groups stand:

Seventh, question data through the counter vendors :

The dealer identification document 2 whose collection_id was 2 was erased after the trader party identification 2 would be taken off the supplier_groups stand. This is basically the effectation of the upon DELETE SUCCESSION motions.

Contained in this guide, you really have discovered SQLite unknown secret limitation and the ways to use them to apply the connection between associated information.